Definition of the disease. Causes of disease
Infertility – a disease in which pregnancy does not occur after 12 months of regular sexual activity without using contraception. For women over 35 years of age, the diagnosis of infertility is made after six months.
Infertility diagnosis and treatment can be started not earlier than a year after trying to get pregnant, for women over 35 years the term is reduced to six months.
Both congenital and acquired diseases can lead to infertility:
Congenital diseases (genital defects):
- uterine hypoplasia (uterus size is smaller than it should be normal);
- doubling of the uterus;
- partitions of the uterus cavity and cervix.
- Inflammatory diseases that lead to obstruction of uterine tubes (the most common cause of infertility):
- inflammation of the uterus cavity;
- salpingoophoritis – inflammation of uterine appendages;
- gonorrhea or chlamydia infection.
- uterine and endometrial neoplasms – uterine myomas, endometrial and cervical canal polyps;
- malfunction of the organs that produce hormones (pituitary gland, hypothalamus, ovaries, thyroid gland, adrenal glands);
- abortions and operations on the uterus and appendages .
Among women 15-44 years old who have ever been married, infertility has been diagnosed:
- 20-24 years old – 1.7%;
- at 25-29 years old – 3.3%;
- at the age of 30-34 – 6.3%;
- at 35-39 years old – 6%;
- at 40-44 years – 5.8%.
If you find similar symptoms, consult a doctor. Do not engage in self-treatment – it is dangerous for your health!
Symptoms of female infertility
The main sign of infertility is the absence of pregnancy at regular sexual life without using contraception methods. Infertility is also manifested by symptoms of those diseases that do not cause pregnancy.
In inflammatory diseases and infectious processes:
- Unpleasant excreta from the genital tract;
- abdominal pain;
- itching and discomfort in the external genitalia;
- increase in body temperature.
In uterine myoma and endometriosis:
- pains in the lower abdomen and during sexual acts;
- heavy menstruation;
- Menstrual cycle disorders – menstruations lasting more than 7 days and more than 21 days.
In hormonal dysfunction and diseases of hormone producing organs:
- Menstrual cycle disorders;
- Menstrual breaks of more than 35 days or no menstruation.
Pathogenesis of female infertility
Female infertility occurs as a result of diseases of the reproductive system, which violate the following processes:
- Oocyte maturation.
- Oocyte fertilization.
- Implantation of the fertilized egg.
- Development of a fetal egg and further embody pregnancy.
During intercourse, millions of sperm contained in the sperm of men get into the vagina of a woman. Lack of healthy sperm or their absence prevents pregnancy and is called the male factor of infertility.
Two hours after intercourse, most sperm dies in the vagina. Only the “strongest and healthy” sperm penetrates through the cervix into the uterus. Infertility can occur if sperm can not overcome the cervical canal (cervical infertility factor).